Ten renowned scientists gathered in shenyang to sign the shenyang declaration to jointly promote the geological and ecological investigation of key areas of black soil around the world
On December 8 to 12, supported by international black soil association, shenyang geological survey center and beijing green earth technology co. LTD, a global key ecological and geological investigation academic seminar was held in Shenyang. Scientists from ten countries, engaging in agricultural science, soil science, geochemistry, remote sensing and other research related to black soil ,attended the conference. Professor li Zhizhong, director of Shenyang center, welcomed the geological and ecological experts around the world to gather in Shenyang to discuss the protection and utilization of the global black soil. Dr. wang Daming introduced the overall planning, objectives and tasks of the geological and ecological investigation in the black soil critical zone in the world, and put forward the technical methods of the investigation. During this meeting, experts from USGS，the international council for global geochemical baseline sampling board, Purdue university, the British geological survey, the Czech republic geological survey and geological survey in Germany, Canada, the ministry of agriculture, Ukraine national geological company and Shenyang center delivered reports on topics of remote sensing geology survey , geochemical survey, black soil critical zone investigation.
All participating experts had a heated discussion on the future research directions, and agreed that: global eco-geological investigation could be a very important part on the global climate change and agriculture development is very necessary, is also a global scale an essential part of soil geochemical study, but now is one of the key problems of the national survey method, should construct platform for international cooperation, as soon as possible to establish a unified method of technical system, give full play to the advantages of remote sensing technology, carry out land and key pedosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and atmosphere multidisciplinary comprehensive research and monitoring. All parties agreed to carry out in-depth international cooperation and exchanges under the organization of the international black soil association, and signed the initiative to jointly carry out the geological and ecological survey in the black soil critical zone. The main cooperation contents include:1)Based on the current project, the geological and ecological survey of the black soil critical zone in the northern and southern hemisphere was conducted based on geochemistry, satellite remote sensing, soil spectrum and the observation, so as to determine the distribution and related properties of black soil.2) Formation and evolution of black soil under global climate change and human activities.3) Migration mechanism of energy, water and solids between different layers in the black soil critical zone.4) carbon cycle and its relationship in black soil regions considering climate change and human activities.5) Comparative study of different management practices under black soil degradation and restoration.6)Carry out research on key factors such as water, nutrient and carbon cycle in the black soil critical zone, so as to achieve the sustainable development between the critical zone and products such as agricultural products and water quality.7)Study the integrated modeling system of black soil critical zone based on multidisciplinary collaboration.8) Establish the integrated survey and monitoring system （technology and software platform）in northeast China, which can cover the cold black soil, agricultural area, mining area and black soil transition belt.9) Establish an international platform for extensive exchanges and cooperation, data and information sharing in the black soil critical zone.
Experts from all countries have signed the proposal, reached consensus, and made timely planning and deployment of the recent work:
1. In 2018, the black soil related countries will cooperate sincerely to complete the determination of the global black soil boundary by means of data collection and satellite remote sensing survey, and then complete the preparation of geochemical sampling deployment and methods and technical specifications of black soil on a global scale.2. 2019-2021, by close cooperation, unified deployment of works on in remote sensing geology and geochemical survey, hydrogeology, basic geological investigation, so as to comprehensively promote the Space-Air-Ground integrated investigation and monitoring of the general geological and ecological status, map the geochemistry and remote sensing geology background, strength the construction of the northeast long-term black soil observation base and connect with the U.S. CZO network, join into the global dynamic monitoring network, and to explore global soil - water - vegetation - atmosphere integrated models based on the mapping and monitoring results.3. From 2021 to 2025, a platform will be formed for data information and achievements sharing of geoecological system investigation and research in the black soil critical zone.
Global black soil regions are mainly located in the middle latitudes, and there are four black soil regions worldwide, i.e. Northeast China, North America, Ukraine to southern Russia and South America. In the northern hemisphere black soil is mainly distributed in low latitudes area （around 46 °N）. As it is rich in organic matter and rich in soil, it has an important contribution to the agriculture and animal husbandry of all countries. It is an important guarantee region for world food security. Hundreds of years of reclamation, especially the high-intensity reclamation in recent decades, making black soil face serious degradation problems, such as soil erosion, salinization or even contaminated by industrial activity. Therefore, the global black soil resources are in urgent need of emergency investigation and monitoring, understanding its volume, methods for protection, and making sustainable land use planning.
The Shenyang geological survey center of China geological survey has long been engaged in the investigation and monitoring work related to black soil geology and ecology, such as remote sensing, geochemistry and long-term filed observation. It has completed the 1:250,000 geochemical survey of 350,000 square kilometers of black soil, the satellite remote sensing survey of 100,000 square kilometers and the aerial hyperspectral remote sensing flight of 1,500 square kilometers. Based on these works, the status of black soil in northeast China has been revealed：1）arable land which is suitable for green products reaches 256 million mu, which can vigorously develop green agriculture, promoting the development of modern agriculture in northeast China； 2）the area with good soil quality was up to 55.17 percent, of which the area with high quality cultivation was 10 million mu, and 1.97 million mu was found to be continuous selenium-rich farmland, which had the advantage of characteristic land resources development；3）and it is found that soil organic matter decreased obviously, compared with the department of agriculture survey data in the 1980 s, soil organic carbon decreased by 12.8% in certain radioactive-polluted area, the different ecological system has obvious effects on soil organic carbon, soil organic carbon decreased by 14.58% of farmland ecosystem, forest ecological system of soil organic carbon were stable, however the most obvious decreasing occurred in grassland ecosystem which reached 20.5%. In order to ensure national food security and achieve "storing grain in the land", it is urgent to plan for sustainable land use.
In February 2015, professor Zhong Ziran, the director of CGS, visited USGS, and discussed the research prospect of the critical zone of the earth, indicating a new direction for the black soil investigation. Since then, the Shenyang center, on the one hand, carries out a comprehensive geological and ecological survey of the black soil critical zone from the perspective of the critical zone of the earth; on the other hand, it begins to seek for countries with distribution of black soil and top scientists engaged in relevant research to jointly carry out international cooperative research.
China geological survey has established the world's top geological and ecological research team in the black soil critical zone, which is believed to lead the world in this field in the near future.
——source：Shenyang geological survey center, China geological survey
authors：Li Zhizhong, Wang Daming, Dai Huimin